If your car is stolen or deemed a total loss, your insurance company will pay you the actual cash value of your car, assuming you have comprehensive and collision coverage on your policy. Even if you do have this coverage, you'll need to check your policy carefully if it is stolen. Some insurers will deny your claim if you didn't report the theft to police right away or if you did not take reasonable care with your vehicle, such as leaving the keys in the car with the engine running while you went into a store, or if you loaned your car to someone who didn't return it.
Keep in mind that the insurance company calculates the pay-out on the wholesale price that a dealer would pay for your car, minus your deductible, so the amount of your check may not be anywhere near what you actually owe. To ensure that your car is paid off in full, you need to purchase insurance to cover the difference, often called “gap coverage.” Be aware, however, that gap coverage carries its own list of restrictions, so read any policy carefully to understand exactly what you are getting for this extra coverage